Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies <p><strong>ABOUT BUJEIS</strong></p> <p>Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies (BUJEIS) is a double-blind peer review multidisciplinary research and development journal, with <strong>ISSN: 2971-7124</strong>, geared towards improving the quality of scholarly research through the development of innovative online publications and knowledge-sharing environments across a wide spectrum of disciplines.</p> <p>BUJEIS seeks to feature contemporary theoretical developments and cutting-edge research that challenge established beliefs and paradigms and offer alternative ways to cope with the disruptive dynamism in the academic-industry-market space, as it pertains to Nigeria in particular and Africa in general. BUJEIS manuscripts target audiences in the Academics, Executives, Industries, and Policymakers</p> <p><strong><em><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">BUJEIS</span></span></em> </strong><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">is published every Trimester (March/April, July/August and November/December). Manuscripts are still being welcomed from interested contributors.</span></span></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2971-7124</strong></p> <p> </p> Centre for Foundation and Interdisciplinary Studies, Baze University, Abuja, Nigeria. en-US Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2971-7124 <p>© 2022, Centre for Foundation and Interdisciplinary Studies, Baze University, Abuja</p> <p> </p> <p>Electronic Publication 2022</p> <p> </p> <p>All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the copyright owner, Baze University Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (BUJEIS), Baze University, Abuja.</p> BUJEIS Vol 2, Iss. 1 Preliminary Pages <p><em>BUJEIS</em>. Vol. 2, Iss 1. PRELIMINARY PAGES</p> Baze University, Abuja Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 2 1 ECONOMIC RISKS AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS (FDIs) IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA <p><em>In spite of the crucial role played by Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in enhancing domestic savings and investments, many developing countries still face challenges in attracting substantial inward FDI compared to other economies in the developing world. This can be attributed to the absence of a conducive institutional and economic environment that is necessary to effectively attract and accommodate inbound FDI. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of economic risks on FDIs in the Sub-Saharan African region. The study adopted a time-variant data covering the period 2000 to 2019 from which a panel was compiled on 15 SSA countries. The FDI data for the study were obtained from World Development Indicator (WDI) while Country Risks Data were sourced from the International Country Risk Guide (ICRG) published by the Political Risk Service (PRS) Group. The degree of association between the dependent and independent variables was determined using descriptive statistics, and panel econometric techniques of the generalized method of moment (GMM). According to the research, the coefficient of Inflation (0.0003%) and GDP per capita (-0.020%) have a significant negative influence at 5% level while the coefficient of real GDP (0.103%) and control variable of Global Financial Crisis (0.379%) have a significant positive effects on FDIs in Sub-Saharan Africa at 5% and 1% level respectively. The study concluded that in order to attract more FDI, SSA nations should build a higher-quality corporate structure and a more consistent financial system. The study therefore, recommended that SSA governments should continue to execute inflation-lowering policies through their monetary and fiscal policies in order to attract FDIs inflows and maintain an FDI-friendly environment for their countries in SSA. </em></p> <p><br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Economic Risk, Foreign Direct Investment, Generalized Method of Moment (GMM)<br />and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).</p> Olusegun Opeyemi Oni Salaudeen Funsho Abdulrasaq Tope Joan C-Oluwatosin Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 2 1 UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENT AND ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS OF FINAL YEAR STUDENTS IN VERITAS UNIVERSITY, ABUJA <p><em>Extant literature has demonstrated support for the university environment - entrepreneurial intentions nexus. However, these studies only employed diverse aspects of the interacting factors in the environment as the dimensions of university environment. Thus, neglecting to validate the role of the core mandates of universities in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Moreover, with the years of teaching of entrepreneurship as general studies and as a degree course in universities in Nigeria, the rate of triggering of entrepreneurial intentions in university students has remained below expectation. With a special focus on final year students in Veritas University, Abuja, this study investigated the effects of teaching, academic research and community service on the students’ entrepreneurial intentions. A cross-sectional survey research design, and criterion sampling, proportionate stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques were adopted to select the 216 respondents that completed the questionnaire. The generated data which were subjected to regression analysis showed that teaching triggered entrepreneurial intentions, while academic research and community service did not contribute to the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. The researcher concludes that academic research and community service can be reinvented and repositioned to better stimulate students’ entrepreneurial intentions. A replication of the study in both public and private universities using longitudinal research design and triangulation method is advocated.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> University Environment, Entrepreneurial Intentions, Teaching, Academic Research,<br />Community Service</p> Dr. Kenneth Chukwujioke Agbim Dr. Michael Ikechukwu Elikwu Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 2 1 PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR IN POWER SYSYTEM DURING LINE DISTURBANCE USING AN ADAPTIVE CONTROL SCHEME <p><em>This research work presents the improvement of the performance of synchronous generator in power system during line disturbances using an adaptive control scheme. This is necessary in order to ensure stability of power system during transient and other disturbances. The adaptive control scheme due to its robustness was incorporated into the excitation and steam valve controller to improve the stability of the system during fault or disturbances. This proposed scheme will also ensure proper frequency and voltage regulation during small perturbation to the mechanical power. The backstepping controller was first designed after which a sliding mode controller was introduced for evaluating the control variables (gains) of the backstepping controller. The performance of the developed scheme was compared with the results obtained when coordinated immersion and variance control method was used, using settling time of power angle, relative speed of recovery, transient potential and input mechanical power as performance metrics. The obtained results of the adaptive control scheme for the settling time of the power angle of the system is 0.25 seconds, while that of the relative speed of recovery, transient potential stability and input mechanical power are 0.2 seconds, 0.2 seconds and 0.21 seconds respectively. The immersion and variance control recorded a settling time of 0.26 seconds for the power angle of the system, 0.25 seconds for the relative speed of recovery, 0.95 seconds for the transient potential stability and 0.92 for the input mechanical power.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords: Synchronous generator, Power system, line disturbance, Backstepping control</strong></p> <p> </p> Yunusa Abdulkareem Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 2 1 TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICE FEATURES: STRATEGIES FOR INFLUENCING SUBSCRIBERS’ PREFERENCES IN NIGERIA <p><em>Currently, telecommunication subscribers in Nigeria like never before are faced with the </em><em>incessant introduction of varying and enticing features such as, call tariffs and data rates, and innovative mobile services by the four network providers in Nigeria (Airtel, MTN, Glo &amp; 9mobile). Access to internet has made subscribers more knowledgeable about sophistication of information technology, service quality expectations and preferences. However, subscribers have continued to experience incessant failures in network availability, poor service quality, drop calls, high data and call rates at minimal value and poor customer service experiences. Hence, this study aimed to </em><em>determine the</em><em> features used by </em><em>mobile telecommunication organisations as strategies that influence subscribers’ preferences </em><em>for value and better service experiences.</em> <em>To achieve the specific objectives, this study adopted the cross-sectional survey research design to collect primary data from a sample size of 285 participants across various states in Nigeria, and who are subscribers to the various telecommunication service providers in Nigeria. The research instrument was subjected to content and construct validity, while the reliability test of the instrument indicated a Cronbach Alpha value of </em><em>α = 0.835.</em><em> The study adopted an online survey platform to administer and collect data for the study, while collected data were analysed using descriptive statistical tools. The findings established and concludes that, telecommunication </em><em>product features such as lower call tariffs, data rates and </em><em>various online transactional services; </em><em>broad </em><em>network coverage </em><em>features; and </em><em>service quality </em><em>features offered by telecom service providers influences subscribers’ preference of mobile </em><em>telecommunication service providers.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Differentiation, Product Quality, Network Coverage, Service Quality, Subscribers Preferences</p> <p> </p> Michael I. Elikwu Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 2 1 Loan Accessibility and Promotion of Entrepreneurial Capacity of Cooperative Societies in Federal College of Agriculture, Ebonyi State <p>The study investigated the influence of loan accessibility on the promotion of cooperative<br>entrepreneurship among members of cooperative societies in Federal College of Agriculture,<br>Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted with the aid of structured<br>questionnaire to elicit useful information relevant to the research from the sampled 281<br>respondents. Results from the findings revealed that the major determinants of loans<br>accessibility among members of the cooperative societies in Federal College of Agriculture<br>Ishiagu by cooperative members and activities that promote entrepreneurship had significant<br>influence on the promotion of cooperative entrepreneurship among members of the cooperative<br>societies in the study area. The study concluded that determinants of loan accessibility and<br>activities that promote entrepreneurship had significantly influenced the promotion of<br>cooperative entrepreneurship. Recommendations were made that; the cooperative societies<br>should improve the flexibility of the determinants of members&amp;#39; access to obtain loans from the<br>respective Cooperative societies in order to encourage members to forego borrowing from other<br>financial institutions with stringent lending conditions. Cooperative members should be educated<br>about entrepreneurial programs organized by public and private individuals that foster<br>Cooperative-Entrepreneurial mind sets in individuals, and they should also be encouraged to<br>participate in those activities on a regular basis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Loan Accessibility, Entrepreneurship, Cooperative Entrepreneurship,Promotion of<br>Entrepreneurial Capacity, Cooperative Societies</p> Oforbuike F. NWACHUKWU Sunny A. IHIABE Jamiyu A. IBRAHEEM Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 2 1 Detection of Impacts of Gas Flaring in the Environment: Application of Landsat Earth Observation Data. <p><em>The study focuses on detection of the impacts of gas flaring at 5 gas flaring sites in the Niger Delta using satellites data. 6 Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data, and 13 Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM ) data spanned from 17/01/1986 to 08/03/2013 with 5 cloud contamination were used. The atmospherically corrected reflectance was used for the calculation of Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) and classification of land cover (LC) types. The Planck equation was inverted using thermal band calibration constants to derive Land Surface Temperature (LST). The transect plot of the reflectance bands (1-4) and NDVI, and 4 cardinal plot analyses for NDVI and LST were adopted to explore the results. Mean and standard deviation of NDVI obtained for the 5 sites are as follows: Eleme I (1.917 10<sup>-5</sup>, 2.069 10<sup>-4</sup>), Eleme II (1.501 10<sup>-5</sup>, 1.340 10<sup>-4</sup>), Bonny LNG (2.129 10<sup>-5</sup>, 8.290 10<sup>-5</sup>), Umurolu (5.806 10<sup>-5</sup>, 7.499 10<sup>-5</sup>) and Onne (2.285 10<sup>⁻6</sup>, 7.952 10<sup>-5</sup>). The results show that LSTs and NDVIs exhibited opposite spatial distribution patterns at the 5 flaring sites investigated. This suggests that vegetation cover, health, growth, etc., within the area has been negatively affected. Regarding these results, we draw a conclusion that Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM have the capacity for detection of the impacts of gas flaring in the Niger Delta.</em></p> BARNABAS MORAKINYO Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 2 1 Health Information System Adoption and Customer (Patient) Satisfaction of Selected Private Hospitals in Kogi State, Nigeria <p><em>This study examined healthcare information system adoption and customer (patient) satisfaction of selected private hospitals in Kogi State. The specific objectives are to (i) examined the effect of service quality of health information system adoption on customer patronage of selected private hospitals in Kogi State. The study also investigated the effect of system quality of electronic health record adoption on customer loyalty in selected private hospitals in Kogi State. The Study adopted survey research design to study the research objectives. The population of the study comprises of five digitalised hospitals in Kogi State The study adopted Godden model for the infinite (unknown) population of customers (patients). The result of the study showed that there is a significant relationship between service quality of health information system adoption and customer patronage in selected private hospitals in Kogi State with R<sup>2</sup> value of 0.912 and the significance level which is less than 0.005. The second hypothesis showed that there is significant relationship between system quality of electronic health record adoption and customer loyalty of selected private hospitals in Kogi State with the R<sup>2</sup> value of 0.880 and the significance level which is less than 0.005. The study recommended that private health providers must improve on the reliability and accurate of the health information system to avoid time wastage (arrival, waiting and service time) in order to satisfy the customers. There should be adequate provision for automated patient record system, information sharing system, electronic healthcare form system and computerized provider order entry system to attract loyal customers.</em></p> <p><br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Health Information System, Customer (Patient) Satisfaction, Service Quality, System Quality, Customer loyalty</p> Olusegun SULEIMAN Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 2 1 Experimental Analysis of a 200 Litre Underground Thermal Storage Reservoir for Solar Water Heater System <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The technology for Solar Water Heating Systems (SWHS) is an on-going innovation. Over the years, various models of SWHS have been developed for various industrial and domestic thermal applications. Despite the wide range benefit of solar energy, its intermittent nature is a major drawback. Hence, a proper thermal storage system will in doubt, enhance the maximization of solar system. The paper seeks to explore the concept of underground thermal storage tank system for the purpose of increasing the thermal storage duration of SWHS to meet daily hot water demand during night hours and during overcast. A laboratory pre-testing of the temperature retention capacity of thermal storage tank without any form of lagging shows an average temperature loss of 3<sup>0</sup>C per hour and an average temperature loss of 1<sup>0</sup>C per hour, when it was partially lagged (with only polystyrene). A five months (May 2021 to September, 2021) experimental investigation of a 200 litre/day solar water heater with an underground thermal storage system installed at Good Pasture Clinic and Maternity, located at N0-6 Citta Avenue, No-Mans-Land,, Kano, Nigeria, is presented. The experimental setup of the system comprises an overhead cold water storage tank, circulation pump, two collectors (a flat plate collector and an evacuated collector), a 200 litres underground thermal storage tank and a temperature data logger with temperature probes. A five months (May, 2021 to September, 2021) experimental investigation of the underground thermal storage tank shows that it took five months for the temperature of water of about 42<sup>0</sup>C to fall to about 28<sup>0</sup>C. The first two months recorded a temperature drop in the water of about 3<sup>0</sup>C, while the third month recorded about 7<sup>0</sup>C drop in water temperature. A sort of thermal equilibrium was reached with temperature of water fluctuating around 29<sup>0</sup>C and 28<sup>0</sup>C in the fourth and fifth months of the experiment. The result further confirms the usability of the underground thermal storage tank as a thermal storage candidate for solar water heater system.</p> <p><strong>Key Words: </strong>Renewable, Solar, Intermittent, Underground, Seasonal and Temperature.</p> Emmanuel Enemona Oguche Isa Garba Mohammed Tajudeen Jimoh Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 2 1 STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP STYLES ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY IN BENIN ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION COMPANY <p><em>The study examined the effect of strategic leadership style on workforce productivity in Benin Electricity Distribution Company (BEDC). Using a survey research design the population of 356 with the use of primary sources of data, sample size of 189 was achieved. The modified five-point Likert scale research instrument was administered to staff of the BEDC in various locations in Edo State to obtain responses. Analyses involved the use of percentage analysis, correlation, and regression analyses with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 software. Result revealed that strategic leadership styles (Transformational and Transactional) have a significant effect on employees’ productivity. The study recommended that, </em><em>leaders should learn the process of combining strategic approach and management style, while observing the discharge of their responsibilities. Also, leaders should embrace visionary and diversity of thoughts as an approach and ensure their vision to guide the actions and behaviours of the employees, to bring about change in individuals as well as improved productivity in the organization.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords: Employees, Productivity, Leadership Style, Strategy, Transformational, Transactional</strong></p> <p> </p> Anthonia Ighiebemhe Otsupius Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 2 1 Assessment of Employee Development, Skills Gap andProductivity in the Hotel Industry in Plateau State, Nigeria. <p><em>This study evaluated the impact of employee development and the skills gap on productivity in a sample of hotels in Nigeria's Plateau State. The study used a descriptive research design and a survey methodology. The managers of all hotels registered with the Plateau State Tourism Corporation made up the study population. The hotels that were sampled and the sample size were chosen using the purposive sampling technique. A standardized questionnaire that was given to 57 managers was used to gather the quantitative data. Inferential statistics (chi-squared logistic binary test) were used to test the hypothesis while descriptive statistics (frequency count, percentage, mean, and standard deviation) were utilized to analyze the quantitative data. The results showed that there are deficiencies in both technical and soft skills, which have an impact on employee productivity. The consequences include losing customers to competitors, rising operational costs, challenges in maintaining high standards of quality, low productivity, failure to implement new working procedures, and complaints and unhappiness from customers. The results also indicated that productivity suffers from a lack of personnel development. The outcome of hypothesis 2 showed that although there is a skills gap, it does not significantly affect productivity in the hotel sector in Plateau State. The study comes to the conclusion that staff training and development is the answer to the skills gap and increased productivity. It is recommended that hotel managers and supervisors describe the needed and available abilities of their staff in order to pinpoint any skill gaps and provide suitable training initiatives. Hotel owners will find the study useful.</em></p> <p><br /><strong>Keywords</strong>:Employee Development, Skills Gap, Productivity, Hotel industry, Plateau State.</p> Mathew D., PEGOELONG Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 2 1 ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES OF THE NIGER DELTA: STRATEGIC RECOMMENDATIONS FOR REDUCING ACTS OF SABOTAGE AND VANDALISM <p><em>This article explored the root causes of sabotage and vandalism within the context of the Nigerian Niger Delta and identified the factors that influenced such behaviour. The study aimed to establish strategic recommendations for reducing these acts and promoting sustainable environmental practices through desk-based research and primary data collection. A qualitative method research design was employed. Desk-based research gathered secondary data from academic literature, reports, and online resources to identify the historical, economic, social, and political factors contributing to environmental issues in the Niger Delta region. Primary data were collected through in-depth interviews with key personnel in the oil and gas industry, representatives from oil spill agencies, and community leaders to gain insights into their perceptions and experiences related to sabotage and vandalism. Additionally, a survey questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of individuals in the affected communities to gather data on the prevalence and factors associated with sabotage and vandalism. The collected data were analyzed using deductive and inductive approaches to identify key themes and patterns. These findings were then utilized to establish strategic recommendations for reducing acts of sabotage and vandalism in the Niger Delta region and promoting sustainable environmental practices. By addressing the root causes and leveraging insights from the qualitative data, the recommendations aim to contribute to a more stable and environmentally conscious Niger Delta.</em><em>One key finding of this paper is that the act of oil pipeline sabotage and vandalism in the Niger Delta region is driven by a complex interplay of social, economic, and political factors. These factors include perceived marginalization and neglect by the government, poverty and unemployment, a desire for economic gain, and a lack of effective governance and law enforcement in the region.</em></p> <p><br /><strong>Keywords: </strong>Environmental challenges, Niger Delta, Nigeria, Oil Bunkering, Oil Sabotage, Poverty</p> Atanda Abdulwaheed ISIAQ Divinefavour Ohida LAWAL Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 2 1 Determinants of Dividend Payout Behaviour of Listed Financial Firms <p>This study investigated the determinants of dividend payout behaviour of listed financial firms in Nigeria. The study utilized and extended the Lintner (1956) model to include other firm specific attributes and macro-economic factors. A sample of 30 financial firms was used for 2012 to 2020. The panel unit root, co-integration test and panel least square were used for data analysis. Empirical findings confirmed the validity of the Lintner model in explaining dividend payout behaviour among listed financial firms in Nigeria. Specifically, past dividend payout and profitability were found to have a significant impact on dividend payout. Other firm specific attributes (taxation, leverage, firm size) and macroeconomic factors (inflation &amp; interest rate) were found not to be significant in explaining dividend payout among listed financial firms in Nigeria. Also, the study found that listed financial firms in the Nigeria Exchange Limited have a high speed of adjustment. Premise on the findings, the study recommended that dividend payment should be smoothed with earnings. Also, managers must ensure earnings sustainability before adjusting to new earnings.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Target Dividend, Lintner Theory, Firm-specific Factors, Macroeconomic Factors, Dividend Decision</p> Esther Ikavbo Evbayiro-Osagie Deborah Eseosa Osayuwa Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 2 1 FOREIGN-LISTING: A STRATEGY FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE FOR FIRMS FROM EMERGING ECONOMIES <p><em>This study examined the exposure of cross-listed firms to market risk and its impact on the firm's stock return for firms from emerging economic group cross-listed on the London Stock Exchange. The study sought to determine if there is a negative asymmetry risk exposure on stock returns and a spillover effect of the economic policy uncertainty from the U.S. impacting negatively on the stock returns of the cross-listed firms. In carrying out the analysis, secondary data was used by collecting individual firms daily stock prices from Bloomberg database to determine firms monthly stock returns while the economic policy uncertainty index was downloaded from </em><a href=""><em></em></a><em>. The period of analysis spanned from year 2000 to 2020 and the Dynamic Conditional Correlation Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (DCC-GARCH) model was employed for analysis. Based on findings economic policy uncertainty is a major source of structural breaks that has a detrimental effect on the overall performance of firms from the emerging economic group of countries. Therefore, firms from the emerging group of countries must consider the stability and volatility in their proposed listing market before deciding to list in a foreign market.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cross-listing, Economic Policy, Uncertainty, Structural Breaks, Stock Returns</p> Akinola Olakunle Ruth Kolo Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 2 1