Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies <p><strong>ABOUT BUJEIS</strong></p> <p>Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies (BUJEIS) is a double-blind peer review multidisciplinary research and development journal, with <strong>ISSN: 2971-7124</strong>, geared towards improving the quality of scholarly research through the development of innovative online publications and knowledge-sharing environments across a wide spectrum of disciplines.</p> <p>BUJEIS seeks to feature contemporary theoretical developments and cutting-edge research that challenge established beliefs and paradigms and offer alternative ways to cope with the disruptive dynamism in the academic-industry-market space, as it pertains to Nigeria in particular and Africa in general. BUJEIS manuscripts target audiences in the Academics, Executives, Industries, and Policymakers</p> <p><strong><em><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">BUJEIS</span></span></em> </strong><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">is published every Trimester (March/April, July/August and November/December). Manuscripts are still being welcomed from interested contributors.</span></span></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2971-7124</strong></p> <p> </p> en-US <p>© 2022, Centre for Foundation and Interdisciplinary Studies, Baze University, Abuja</p> <p> </p> <p>Electronic Publication 2022</p> <p> </p> <p>All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the copyright owner, Baze University Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (BUJEIS), Baze University, Abuja.</p> (Dr. Michael I. Elikwu) (Rhema Oguche Ekpa) Sat, 28 Jan 2023 15:24:56 +0000 OJS 60 Evaluation of Factors Influencing Changes in Land Surface Temperature at Gas Flaring Sites in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. <p>This research investigates factors that can affect changes in Land Surface Temperature (LST) retrieved from satellites data at 11 gas flaring sites in Rivers State, Nigeria. 8 Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), 22 Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM), and 4 Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor (OLI-TIRS) data from 14/12/1984 to 05/02/2022 with &nbsp;3 &nbsp;cloud cover were used. LST was derived from the atmospherically corrected thermal band; difference between vegetation LST at 60m from the flare stack and vegetation LST at 450m from the flare stack was computed as (LST<sub>60-450m</sub>). Available factors that can affect LST<sub>60-450m</sub>) considered are size of the facility, height of the flare stack and time. Pairwise linear regression analysis was applied to the relationship between each of the factor considered and LST<sub>60-450m</sub>) in North, East, South, and West directions with &nbsp;&nbsp;0.01 to obtain r-values and p-values. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationships among multiple variables (x<sub>1 </sub>&nbsp;month, x<sub>2 </sub>&nbsp;size of the facility and x<sub>3 </sub>&nbsp;stack height, y<sub>1 </sub>LST<sub>60-450mN</sub>) and y<sub>2 </sub>LST<sub>60-450mE</sub>). The results (r<sup>2</sup> &nbsp;0.05, and p-value &nbsp;0.016) show that only 5 &nbsp;of the variability in LST<sub>60-450m</sub>) could be accounted for by the variables considered. From these results, it can be concluded that size of the facility, height of the flare stack and time could only accounted for 5 &nbsp;of the variability in LST<sub>60-450m</sub>) at the flaring sites examined in the Niger Delta.</p> BARNABAS MORAKINYO, SAMANTHA LAVENDER, VICTOR ABBOTT Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ENHANCING RELIABILITY OF EMPIRICAL TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT OF A SOLAR WATER HEATER SYSTEM WITH A TEMPERATURE DATA LOGGER <p>The quality and reliability of empirical results generated during any study can be established by how closely related those results obtained are, if the experiment is repeated severally within a given space of time. Such tasks could be herculean and laborious if they are required to be performed manually. Results obtained from such tedious measurement may be prone to a lot of human errors, especially where a large volume of data is required to be measured for a longer duration. Hence, deployment of Data Logger for empirical studies could help eliminate such errors and difficulties thereby, enhancing accuracy and reliability of experimental results. The Met Scientific System International (MSSI:MS08) Data Logger was suitably deployed for a 200 litre/day installed capacity solar water heater system for Good Pasture Clinic and Maternity, located at N0-6 Citta Avenue, Nomansland, Kano, Nigeria. A seamless analysis of the temperature drops in the installed 200 L/d solar water heater system was achieved with little or no human presence using the MSSI:MS08 Data Logger. The results obtained from the MSSI:MS08 Data Logger deployed at the Good Pasture Clinic and Maternity, gives a true picture of temperature drops within the solar water heating system as compared to those obtained by simulation which only shows defunct values at night due to non-availability of solar irradiation. The ease of measuring multiple empirical variables data points makes the use of Data Logger more potent as data measuring instrument.</p> Emmanuel Enemona Oguche, Isa Garba, Mohammed Tajudeen Jimoh Copyright (c) 2022 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 IMPACT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ON BRAND IMAGEOF MTN IN NIGERIA. <p><em>The study examined the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on brand image of MTN in Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to variables of the impact of economic CSR activities, social CSR activities andenvironmental CSR activities andbrand loyalty of MTN in Nigeria. survey research design was adopted to carry out the research work </em>Abuja metropolis in FCT<em>.The population of 384 according to Cochran infinite customers were used and 262 returnedquestionnaires were used to analyzed the data. With the aid of ordinary least square regression analysis, the result showed that economic activities, social activities and environmental activities had a significant impact on brand loyalty with significant level of 0.04, 0.00 and 000 respectively.The study therefore concludes that CRS has a significant impact on brand image of MTN. The study recommends that management of MTN could find a way to innovate their economic responsibility practices by further engaging in these initiatives to enhance a brand image. This will lead to an increased customer base and finally increased profitability. Also, it recommends that MTN managers should undertake more morally justified CSR initiatives which will help to strengthen community welfare and their brand image.Finally,environmental protection programs should be developed. These programs can include recycling, procuring environment-friendly materials for use with MTN logo, engaging distributors and suppliers who are known to be environment friendly and creating products that do not pollute the environment.Therefore, it was concluded based on the results obtained that there is a very close link between CSR activities, the brand image of MTN in Nigeria.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Corporate Social Responsibility, Economic CSR activities, Social CSR activities Environmental CSR activities, Brand loyalty, MTN Nigeria.</p> Bello Shehu Shehu, Abdulqawil Bello, John Toro Gimba Copyright (c) 2022 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Examining sustainable construction waste management methods for potential performance improvement <p>Approximately 30 percent of municipal solid waste is typically comprised of construction debris, posing a significant challenge to municipal authorities in almost every city in the world, especially those in developing nations. Adoption of sustainable waste management methods in the Nigerian construction industry is crucial because, as long as man continues to construct, sustainable practises will remain a necessity Change comes with numerous challenges and the adoption of sustainable waste management practices is not an exception. It is on this note that this study attempts an assessment of sustainable waste management in the Nigerian Construction Industry. Existing methods of waste disposal were outlined, familiarity with sustainable waste management practices was evaluated, challenges hindering the execution of sustainable waste disposal practices were identified as well and they were all assessed using mean score. The study revealed that the most familiar waste management methods in the construction industry are Re-Use, Recycling &amp; L and filling. While the most practiced waste management methods are reuse, burning &amp; land filling. Inadequate government support for green technology and insufficient encouragement and support from the construction industry's various professional organisations were identified as the most significant obstacles to sustainable waste management methods.&nbsp; The study recommends that construction companies should focus more on waste management through reduction of the total amount of construction waste generated and leaving disposal as a last resort. Also, the Government and the Governing bodies of construction professional bodies should put conscious efforts into supporting the execution of construction projects with the aim of using green technologies, sustainable construction methods as well as sustainable methods of waste management.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Waste management, Sustainable construction, Construction &amp; Demolition Wastes, Re-Use, Recycling and Landfilling</p> Alice T. Ogunlolu, , Chioma Precious Ekweani, ; Mubarak Reme Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of microfinance banks services on SMEs performance amid COVID 19 recovery: Evidence from Kano metropolitan area. <p>Abstract</p> <p>Microfinance banks significantly support small and medium-scale enterprises, particularly in emerging economies like Nigeria. The need for this support becomes necessary in the post-COVID-19 recoveries. This paper investigates microfinance banks' impact on SMEs' performance as many went into bankruptcy due to&nbsp;the COVID-19 pandemic. The study collected survey data from SMEs in Kano metropolitan area. The study used a convenience sampling technique on 422 samples in the study area, and PLS-SEM was used for data analysis. The study reveals a positive and significant relationship between entrepreneurial skills and the performance of SMEs in Kano. Similarly, the relationship between microcredit and SMEs performance was positive and significant. Therefore, the study concludes that microfinance banks’ services positively and significantly influence SMEs performance. If microfinance banks provide SMEs’ owners with access to entrepreneurial skills training, small credits without stringent requirements and savings services, their operational performance and profitability would improve immensely.</p> <p>Keywords: COVID 19 pandemic, SMEs’ performance, Microfinance banks, small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs)</p> Auwalu Inusa; Kabir Musa Shuaib, Bello Bichi Gambo, Ummi Rahma Shehu, Usman Yahaya Shehu, Copyright (c) 2022 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Electricity Generation from Water Using a Hydrogen Fuel Cell <p>In this paper, electricity is successfully generated at the Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical &amp; Computer Engineering (ECE) laboratory from water using a hydrogen fuel cell as an alternative to the popular hydroelectric technology. This was achieved by building a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel cell, more popularly known as the PEM fuel cell or PEMFC, and using it to generate electricity from water.On first trial, an input voltage and current of 3.4v &amp; 1.54A respectively were applied to the system of 1.37liters of water and 411g of NaOH. No system output was recorded. A second trial was then carried out with the fuel reduced to a quarter of the original amount, this recorded an increase in hydrogen production rate as well as a peak voltage in addition to current of 11 volts and 5.3 amps respectively. However, no activity was observed in the fuel cell or bubbler. Trial 2 revealed that the hydrogen was not reaching the MEA inside the assembly, the solution was to increase the gas port from <sup>9</sup>/<sub>64­</sub>'' to <sup>1</sup>/<sub>5</sub>''. The gas port, input voltage and current were increased for a 3<sup>rd</sup> trial. After several component troubleshooting &amp; testing, the system was set up and within a period of 1 – 2 minutes the fuel cell gave a rising output starting at 0.01 volts and peaking at 0.7 volts driving a small motor at 0.3 volts.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>Renewable Energy, Technology, Fuel cell, Electrolyzer, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM), Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)</p> Abdullahi Yusuf Sada, Asia’u Talatu Belgore, Chijioke Nwankwo Copyright (c) 2022 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies Sat, 28 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of financial technology (FinTech) on Nigeria's national development amid COVID-19 recovery. <p>Many developing countries faced challenges related to digital financial services during the COVID-19 pandemic, as lockdowns and other restrictions amid protocols to curtail the spread of the dreaded virus. Studies on fintech in developing countries like Nigeria are essential due to the effect of globalization and the rising influence of digital markets worldwide. Therefore, the study examines the effects of financial technology on Nigeria's national development amid COVID-19 recovery. 415 banks' customers were surveyed to determine the effects of fintech on national development. PLS-SEM was employed to analyze the data using Smart PLS3. The findings reveal that the relationship between sustainability and national development is positive and significant. Similarly, the findings indicate a positive and significant relationship between transaction efficiency and national development. It is concluded that FinTech provides financial channels that carry every citizen and reduce the poverty rate and income inequality which all translate to national development. It is recommended that policymakers continue to provide the enabling environment, including policy direction and regulation, to enhance FinTech development in the country.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> FinTech, trust, national development, innovation, transformation.</p> Auwalu Inusa; Kabir Musa Shuaib, Bello Bichi Gambo, Ummi Rahma Shehu, Usman Yahaya Shehu Copyright (c) 2022 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Business Survival Model for Sustained Socioeconomic Wellbeing: A Proposed Approach <p>Emphasis is placed on innovation for business survival. However, innovation contributes only 20 percent towards survival of businesses, situation that sours socioeconomic crises. Hence, this study proposes business survival model for sustained socioeconomic wellbeing. Library based study is adopted for the research. Relationship between relevance creation and business survival was conceptually examined. The paper discovers significant predictive power of relevance creation on survival of business through competitiveness. Thus, this study recommends to both existing and prospective business to attach hallmark importance to market needs and expectations; exceed market expectations; build activities around empirical evidences of what adequately support customer satisfaction and never form business for personal gain. Further, empirical research to examine the practicability and impact of this model on surviving and failed businesses respectively, is highly suggested by this study.</p> <p>Key words: Business, Model, Proposed, Socioeconomic, Survival, Wellbeing</p> Dr. Muhammad Baffa Sani Copyright (c) 2022 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Existing Payment Systems Towards Adoption of Smart Contract <p>The aim of the paper is to investigate the existing payment system in Nigerian Construction Industry as a means of recommending an improved system for payment of construction projects to meet future challenges. A qualitative systematic review was conducted to gather the challenges of the existing payment system followed by an interview with construction contract administration professionals. The findings reveal that to minimize existing payment issues among contracting parties, the adoption of self-executing contracts as well as better interpretation of contract conditions/terms at the outset of contract execution are required. The paper concludes that smart contract payment system can significantly abate payment related-issues and is more suitable for adoption in a technologically-enabled environment.</p> Chioma Precious Ekweani, ; Alice Taiye Ogunlolu, Mubarak R. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Pessimistic Impact of Abandoned Housing Projects on the Environment and Society <p>Influx of people into cities has necessitated the need for the construction of more housing estates. Sadly, many of the housing projects were abandoned before completion. This paper presents findings on the effects generated by abandoned housing projects on the immediate surrounding environment and the inhabiting society at the neighbourhood. Sampling was made from thirty-six abandoned housing projects in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Studied data on social menace and environmental decadence around the uncompleted buildings were sourced through personnel visits and the data was concisely analyzed. Consequently, a prototype structure was erected in an open laboratory and then abandoned for six (6) years. Periodic observations ‘on’ and ‘around’ the structures were recorded throughout. Findings show that there is a mounting upsurge of environmental hazards as well as socio-economic crisis associated with uncompleted housing projects. The most devastating of these problems are debility to the provision of ‘shelter-for-all’, promotion of man made cities, monthly loan repayments to servicing banks by intended buyers, increase in social vices and subjection of human’s and animal’s health into jeopardy. This research could provide valuable guide to understanding the environmental hazards and socio-economic catastrophe normally caused by abandoned residential projects. The ability to improvise on the fly are fundamental, the capacity and willingness to adapt to changing conditions is key to project success.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: &nbsp;</em></strong><strong><em>Housing; Abandon project; Environment; Society, Rethink.</em></strong></p> Muhammad Douglas Umbugala , Bala Muhammad, Mohammad Ismail Copyright (c) 2022 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Strategic Networking: A Re-Engineering Approach for Sustainable Growth of Small Businesses in Nigeria <p><em>In Nigeria, the challenges inhibiting growth of small businesses includes the combined effect of low market access, poor information flow, poor business literacy and pre-start-up industry knowledge, weak linkage among different segments of the operations in the sector, weak operating capacities in terms of skills, knowledge and attitudes, use of obsolete equipment and methods of production because of owner’s inability to access new technology. Also, owing to the absence of strategic networking, resulting in </em><em>absence of capacity of small business owners to simultaneous exploit opportunities innovatively and to create competitive advantage for business growth; hence, </em><em>this study investigates </em><em>strategic networking as a re-engineering approach towards sustainable growth of small businesses in Nigeria. </em><em>This study employed</em><em> the</em><em> cross-sectional survey design, with </em><em>a sample size of one hundred and ninety eight (198</em><em>) </em><em>small businesses operating within the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. </em><em>Data generated for the study were analysed using descriptive analytical techniques, while hypotheses was tested using multiple regression. The result revealed that, </em><em>strategic networking has a significant impact on re-engineering sustainable growth of small businesses in Nigeria. Hence, the study recommended that, small businesses desirous of growth and expansion should ensure effective business networking within the industry to enhance productivity in the event where they lack technological capacity to produce for uninterrupted operations, effective and profitable product distribution and access to wider markets</em></p> <p><em> </em><strong>Keywords: </strong><strong>Distribution, Strategic Networking, Growth, Small Business, Production Capacity, </strong></p> Michael Ikechukwu Elikwu; Shulammite Paul, Munirat Nma Mohammed, Godwin Emokhare Copyright (c) 2022 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Blockchain as a tool for increasing collaboration among construction project managers in Nigeria <p><em>This paper explores the challenges associated with the successful implementation of blockchain technology in the construction industry from a Nigerian perspective. In particular, it identifies the possible applications of blockchain technology in improving collaboration among construction industry professionals, hence increasing project management efficiency and transparency in the delivery of construction projects. The study is qualitative in nature adopting a content analysis research methodology approach. This study construes knowledge as that only gained through social constructions, such as language, shared meanings, documents, industry reports, reviews of academic papers, and tools. It is a changing and relative phenomenon. Construction management software such as BIM (building information modeling), Procore and Plangrid were introduced to help improve the level of collaboration between construction project managers, but there is no single computer application that pools information to share data between parties like blockchain. This is where blockchain can make a difference and help solve the collaboration problem. Blockchain is a peer-to-peer, controlled, distributed transactional database used to record and store lists of transactions (called blocks) that are verified through cryptography. This paper explores the emergence of blockchain, explains how it is used, and analyzes the best practices and applications needed for blockchain to succeed in the Nigerian construction industry. The study revealed that developing countries are suffering in terms of the timely execution of projects, including poor collaborative strategies which are depicted by lack of trust, transparency, and poor procurement management strategies.</em></p> Jummai Agidani Copyright (c) 2022 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 PERCEPTION ON THE USE AND IMPACT OF FACEBOOK AND WHATSAPP FOR ACADEMIC INFORMATION BY UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN SELECTED UNIVERSITIES IN ABUJA MUNICIPAL <p><em>Facebook and WhatsApp are social network platforms that have enhanced communication, Information sharing, and absorption, They are tools for social change and&nbsp; Knowledge assimilation their importance cannot be overemphasized which necessitate this study to investigate the perception of use and impacts of Facebook and WhatsApp for academic information for undergraduate students in Nigeria. The study uses Purposive sampling&nbsp; in selection of two universities situated in Abuja Municipal, one private and one public university,&nbsp; The research design adopted for this study was the descriptive survey research design with total enumeration of 2,010 undergraduate students from six departments (building, architecture, information technology, foundations, mechanical engineering and electrical engineering) the study further adopts simple random sampling technique and proportionate sampling technique to select a sample of 335 undergraduate students drawn from the six departments under study statistically determined using Yamane’s mathematical model.&nbsp; The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. Finding shows that undergraduates use both Facebook and WhatsApp for their academic endeavours, the frequency of use is high, the platforms aid learning, and the positive impacts negate the negativity, the findings further revealed that WhatsApp is a better platform for collaboration in comparison to Facebook and despite the academic benefits, negative side effects are noted. Use and awareness of WhatsApp and Facebook for academic information correlated.&nbsp;&nbsp; The challenges pointed out by undergraduates is that, it is time-consuming and High-cost internet subscription, appropriate recommendations were made.</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>&nbsp;Perception, Impact, Utilization, Facebook, WhatsApp, Undergraduate, Students, Universities</em></p> Habiba Oiza Ochepa Copyright (c) 2022 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ANALYZING THE IMPACT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP INITIATIVES ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES: A STUDY OF GWAGWALADA AREA COUNCIL FCT, ABUJA. <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><em><span lang="EN-GB" style="color: #0e101a;">This study assessed the Impacts of Entrepreneurship Initiatives in the economic development of rural communities, a case study of Gwagwalada Area Council, FCT, Abuja., Nigeria. The research work featured two (02) Objectives, two (02) Research Questions, and two (02) Research Hypotheses. The population of 2,690 was randomly selected; using Taro Yamane Formula, a sample size of 348 was arrived at. A total number of 348 questionnaires were filled and analyzed. The study findings were arrived at using Chi-Square statistical tool in SPSS Package. The analyses revealed that the impacts of entrepreneurship initiatives of Creativity, Innovations, Risk-taking, Pro-activeness, etc., on the performances of businesses in Gwagwalada Area Council were statistically significant. The conclusion was in line with Innovation Diffusion Theory which is widely adopted to self-sustain an organization. It is recommended that more than entrepreneurship initiatives are needed. A deliberate and holistic effort of governments, institutions, individuals and other stakeholders to increase the supply and sustenance of entrepreneurs in whichever way possible will bring about the much-desired goal of meaningful economic development to the rural communities in Gwagwalada and the nation in general.&nbsp;</span></em></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><em><strong><span lang="EN-GB" style="color: #0e101a;">Key Words:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-GB" style="color: #0e101a;">Entrepreneurs, Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Initiatives, Economic Development, Innovation Diffusion Theory and Rural Communities.</span></em></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="color: #0e101a;">&nbsp;</span></p> Mohammed Gaddafi Ibrahim ; John Ifegwu, Samaila Tenebe, A. M. Ogwuche Copyright (c) 2022 Baze University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Interdisciplinary Studies Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000